Dependent variables and independent variables refer to values that change in relationship to each other. The dependent variables are those that are observed to change in response to the independent variables. The independent variables are those that are deliberately manipulated to invoke a change in the dependent variables.
In short, if x is given, then y occurs, where x represents
the independent variables and y represents the dependent variables.
Example, If we have a function f(x), then x is an independent
variable, and f(x) is a dependent variable.